Tuesday 13th April 2021

Home » Our Catholic Faith » Currently Reading:

Fr. Thomas Crean, OP… Amoris Laetitia Is Not A Thomistic Document

October 25, 2017 Our Catholic Faith No Comments

By DOROTHY CUMMINGS McLEAN

LONDON (LifeSiteNews) — Fr. Thomas Crean, OP, one of the first signers of the Filial Correction, has had a thorough grounding in the philosophy and theology of fellow Dominican St. Thomas Aquinas.
After earning a BA in philosophy and theology at Oxford University, Crean took a lectorate at Blackfriars, Oxford’s Dominican college; an STL from the St. Thomas Aquinas Institute in Toulouse, France; and a doctorate in sacred theology from the International Theological Institute in Austria.
LifeSiteNews contacted Fr. Crean to settle a burning question: Is Amoris Laetitia, as Christoph Cardinal Schönborn has assured us, Thomistic?

+ + +

Q. First, what school of Thomas do you follow?
A. I would sympathize most with what is called half-humorously and half-seriously “Thomism of the Strict Observance,” which emphasizes the tradition of the commentators, especially Cajetan and John of St. Thomas, as further mediated and developed in the 20th century by men like Gredt, Garrigou-Lagrange, Maritain, and Grenier. Maritain, especially at the end of his life, was closely connected with the Toulouse Dominicans.
Q. In what ways could Amoris Laetitia be interpreted as Thomistic? That is, why might Cardinal Schönborn think so?
A. Two things come to mind. One is that it presents the moral or spiritual life as primarily a growth in virtue, by which we gradually respond less imperfectly to God’s invitation to life and happiness with Him, rather than as primarily conformity to Commandments and the avoidance of sin.
The other, which is an aspect of the first, is that it speaks of the need for the virtue of prudence (“discernment”), in consequence of the infinite variety of situations in which human beings find themselves, a variety which means that a necessarily finite code of rules will never be sufficient for good action.
Apart from that, it also quotes St. Thomas on…14 or 15 occasions, including some works less often cited, such as the commentary on Aristotle’s Ethics.
Q. In what ways could Amoris Laetitia be interpreted as not Thomistic?
A. Some of the quotations from Aquinas used in Amoris Laetitia are cut short in such a way as not to give a well-rounded view of his thought on a given subject or, more seriously, quoted out of context so as to give an impression that he thought the opposite of how he really did. Sometimes he is quoted when his words are only slightly relevant to the matter at hand, as if just to increase the number of times his name appears in the footnotes.
Q. What is your “Respondeo” (i.e., answer) to the question “Is Amoris Laetitia Thomistic?”
A. If by “Thomistic” one means a document written in the style of St. Thomas himself, or in the style of someone who has taken St. Thomas for his guide in theology, then Amoris Laetitia is not a Thomistic document.
St. Thomas’ work is characterized by conciseness and clarity, whereas Amoris Laetitia is expansive, and, on certain key points, ambiguous — at least if we are to judge by the conflicting interpretations it has received.
Again, a phrase such as “time is greater than space” is reminiscent not of St. Thomas but of a certain gnomic, metaphorical style of writing which St. Thomas criticized in the works of Plato.
More important than style is content. Here we could consider either the content of Amoris Laetitia as a whole, or those places in it where St. Thomas is explicitly quoted, or at least referenced.

A Danger To Faith And Morals

On the first point, I was one of 45 signatories of a letter about Amoris Laetitia sent last year to all the cardinals and Eastern patriarchs of the Church. . . . This letter said:
“When it comes to (Amoris Laetitia) itself . . . there is no doubt that it constitutes a grave danger to Catholic faith and morals. It contains many statements whose vagueness or ambiguity permit interpretations that are contrary to faith or morals, or that suggest a claim that is contrary to faith and morals without actually stating it. It also contains statements whose natural meaning would seem to be contrary to faith or morals.”
This letter listed 19 passages of Amoris Laetitia (saying) either that they suggested heresies and other grave errors, or else that their natural (obvious) meaning…was heretical or gravely erroneous. Hence, given that St. Thomas has been declared the Common Doctor of the Church and presented as a model for theologians…I should not consider Amoris Laetitia to be a Thomistic document.
When it comes to the explicit use made of St. Thomas, we should look at the individual passages. Certain passages quote him accurately and aptly in support of themes in the exhortation. Paragraphs 102, 120, 123, 126-127, and 134 fall into this category. For example, they quote his remarks that marriage is the greatest of friendships, that there need be no limit to the growth of charity in this life, and that friendship involves considering another person as a being of great worth.
At other times, Amoris Laetitia quotes St. Thomas accurately, (but) less aptly or even misleadingly. Thus paragraph 146 cites (him) in connection with the statement that: “A family is mature when the emotional life of its members becomes a form of sensitivity that neither stifles nor obscures great decisions and values, but rather follows each one’s freedom.”
The reference is not apt, since in the passage cited, St. Thomas is not talking about families or great decisions, or even values or freedom. He is simply discussing whether the virtues coexist with the moral virtues, and explaining that they sometimes do and sometimes don’t.

Minor And Major Misuses

In regard to misleading uses of St. Thomas, there are minor and major examples.
A minor example occurs in paragraph 99. Talking about family life, Amoris Laetitia quotes these words from the Summa: “Every human being is bound to live agreeably with those around him.” However, it omits the second half of the sentence, which is nisi propter aliquam causam necesse sit aliquando alios utiliter contristare (“unless it should be necessary for him for some reason to cause them profitable sadness at some time”).
Another example occurs in paragraph 148. This first cites Aquinas in support of the statement that excessive seeking of some pleasure can weaken that same pleasure, and also alludes to his teaching that pleasure in the marital act is compatible with observing the “mean” of virtue.
The references here are accurate, but one has the distinct impression in this section that St. Thomas is being pressed into support [of] a more “optimistic” view of human sexuality than he in fact upheld. For example, he taught that the conjugal act in fallen human beings tends, even when legitimately exercised, to weaken the impulse of charity toward God (2a 2ae 186, 4). He also held that for a spouse to ask for the paying of the marital debt without the desire for procreation is always at least a venial fault (Supplement, 49, 5).

Seriously
Misleading Passages

I come now to what I should respectfully consider to be more seriously misleading passages.
(The English version of) paragraph 145 (of Amoris Laetitia) states: “Experiencing an emotion is not, in itself, morally good or evil. The stirring of desire or repugnance is neither sinful nor blameworthy. What is morally good or evil is what we do on the basis of, or under the influence of, a given passion.” It footnotes the Summa, 1a 2ae 24, 1.
But what St. Thomas says here is that no emotion, abstractly considered, is either good or bad. Even hatred is not bad as such: It is good to hate sin. However, every actually existing emotion will always be either good or bad. This is true, independently of any actions to which they may give rise.
St. Thomas says: ipsae passiones, secundum quod sunt voluntariae, possunt dici bonae vel malae moraliter. Dicuntur autem voluntariae vel ex eo quod a voluntate imperantur, vel ex eo quod a voluntate non prohibentur (“The emotions themselves, inasmuch as they are voluntary, can be called morally good or bad. And they are said to be voluntary inasmuch as they are commanded by the will, or else because they are not checked by the will.”)
There is a serious mistake in the text of Amoris Laetitia here, since certain emotions can rise by themselves to the level of mortal sin, for example, certain kinds of deliberate anger and sexual desire. It is dangerous to give the impression that only outward acts can be morally good or evil.
The Latin text of paragraph 145 is slightly different, but the net result is the same. On the one hand, it changes “the stirring of desire or repugnance is neither sinful nor blameworthy” to “perceiving a desire or repugnance beginning is neither harmful nor blameworthy,” which strictly speaking is true, since the perception itself would not be a sin. However, it retains the claim that moral good and evil lie only in outward action. And, bizarrely, it also quotes one of the objections in the Summa as if it were St. Thomas’ own teaching!
Next, paragraph 301. Here Amoris Laetitia states that people . . . can be living in irregular (e.g., adulterous) situations and may know the Church’s teaching on “the rule,” and yet may be unable to see the value of “the rule.” These people, Amoris Laetitia says, may possess sanctifying grace and may be unable to obey the rule without sinning.
It goes on: “St. Thomas Aquinas himself recognized that someone may possess grace and charity, yet not be able to exercise any one of the virtues well.” As Dr. Joseph Shaw has pointed out, this quotation is irrelevant to the question of whether one can be excused from obeying the divine law by an ability to see its value, or whether one can be obliged to disobey it to avoid some other sin. St. Thomas is simply talking of people who have repented of past sins, and who now live virtuously, but do so with some difficulty because of the effect that those past sins have left behind.
Hence Dr. Shaw wrote: “Aquinas is simply pointing out that impediments are more likely when the virtue has not been acquired by a process of training and habituation over time, but by an infusion of grace from God. This abstruse issue is completely irrelevant to the matter at hand, and makes me wonder about the intellectual integrity of the people advising Pope Francis at this point in the document.”
A more relevant passage from the Summa would have been found in 1a 2ae 19, 6: “If erring reason tell a man that he should go to another man’s wife, the will that abides by that erring reason is evil; since this error arises from ignorance of the Divine Law, which he is bound to know.”

Intrinsically Bad Actions

A more serious, because superficially more plausible, misrepresentation of the Angelic Doctor is found in paragraph 304. Amoris Laetitia is discussing the question of universal moral laws, in the context, of course, of invalid second marriages and the conferral of the sacraments, and it quotes a passage from 1a 2a 94, 4:
“Practical reason deals with contingent things, upon which human activity bears, and so although there is necessity in the general principles, the more we descend to matters of detail, the more frequently we encounter defects….In matters of action, truth or practical rectitude is not the same for all, as to matters of detail, but only as to the general principles.”
Although the argument at this point in Amoris Laetitia seems designed to be hard to follow, the impression is very strongly given that St. Thomas would have said that either sexual activity within a marriage not recognized by the Church as valid, or else giving Holy Communion to those who engage in such activity, cannot be objects of a universal prohibition.
There can be, the text implies, only a defeasible presumption against such things. In fact, St. Thomas teaches, with the whole tradition of the Church, that there are indeed such things as intrinsically bad actions which generate universal prohibitions.

St. Thomas Would Be Horrified

On the question of the reception of the sacraments, Amoris Laetitia can hardly be considered Thomistic, (because) it does not quote the relevant text from the Summa: “Holy Communion ought not to be given to open sinners when they ask for it” (3a 80), or the identical teaching in the Scriptum (Super Sent., lib. 4 d. 9 q. 1 a. 5 qc. 1 co).
What then was the meaning of the passage from Aquinas quoted in Amoris Laetitia 304?
St. Thomas there spoke of certain “general principles” that are the same for all. These include the Commandments of the Decalogue and any other precepts of divine law. In addition to these, there are “matters of detail,” i.e., certain rules of good action which human reason can work out for itself, such as “keep your promises” (and) “obey the law of the land”….
But these, though generally applicable, may in certain circumstances not serve as reliable guides to good action, because human reason cannot foresee all cases. For example, it may be necessary to break a promise to meet someone in order to deal with a medical urgency, or to break a speed limit to drive someone to hospital.
It is fair to say that St. Thomas would have been horrified to think that any bishop would one day use this commonsense teaching in order to authorize Holy Communion for those publicly committed to illicit unions.
Finally, in a footnote to the same paragraph, Amoris Laetitia says: “In another text, referring to the general knowledge of the rule and the particular knowledge of practical discernment, St. Thomas states that ‘if only one of the two is present, it is preferable that it be the knowledge of the particular reality, which is closer to the act’.” It refers us to his commentary on the Nicomachaean Ethics, Book 6, lecture 6, section 11.
Again, it misrepresents Aquinas’ teaching, with potentially seriously consequences. St. Thomas is not here contrasting rules and “discernment” but rather universal truths and more particular truths. He gives the example of one man who knows that “light flesh” is healthy to eat, but not what counts as light flesh, and another man who doesn’t know the general principle about “light flesh,” but does know that the flesh of birds is healthy to eat. The latter person is a better guide about how to eat.
Hence, St. Thomas is not saying that a priest who thinks he can discern the presence of the Holy Spirit in Mr. Smith’s soul despite Mr. Smith’s invalid second marriage but has never heard about the principle of not giving Holy Communion to those in adultery is in a better position to judge what to do at the altar rails than a priest who knows the principle but can’t discern the Holy Spirit in Mr. Smith’s soul.
Rather, he is saying that a priest who knows the truth that one should not give Holy Communion to those in public adultery, but doesn’t know the more universal truth that one should not give it to those in public sin, is in a better position to decide what to do than one who knows that one should not give it to those in public sin, but who does not know that a second marriage counts as public sin.

Conclusion

In conclusion, although many and various passages from St. Thomas’ works are quoted in Amoris Laetitia, I cannot say that I believe that they give, as some readers might suppose…a reliable account of the Angelic Doctor’s teaching on married love, the emotions, universal moral prohibitions or the reception of Holy Communion by public sinners.
Hence, given also what was said above about the content of Amoris Laetitia as a whole, and about its style, I should not be able to say that I considered Amoris Laetitia a Thomist document.

Share Button

2019 The Wanderer Printing Co.

Twitter Feed

VICTORY!

23rd Texas City Bans Abortions, Becomes “Sanctuary for the Unborn” https://t.co/v9JKt68xhF

The goal of much of the modern American left is to celebrate public sin and to disparage traditional values as bigotry.

Abortion on demand, open borders, four dollars a gallon gasoline, churches and schools closed - what's not to love?

Chris Manion . . . Introducing A New “Reality” By Legislative Fiat - https://t.co/fUiS6S0oft

Load More...

Vatican observes ‘Earth Hour’

On Saturday, along with the Vatican, symbolic monuments of cities all across the globe turn off their lights, to demonstrate the serious global climate crisis. By Vatican News staff writer Vatican City State took part in the traditional international initiative Earth…Continue Reading

House passes bill setting up path to citizenship for millions of Dreamers

Lawmakers in the House of Representatives on Thursday passed an immigration bill that would create a path to citizenship for millions of undocumented immigrants who were brought to the country as children.

The Misleading AP Attack on the Catholic Church for Accepting COVID Relief

In early 2020, a pandemic came to America. We started staying home, then we were ordered to stay home. The market tanked. The economy tanked. Unemployment soared. You remember all this, because you lived it. We all did. Congress created a…Continue Reading

Catholic bishop released five days after kidnapping in Nigeria

CNA Staff, Jan 1, 2021 / 10:42 pm MT (CNA).- A Catholic bishop in Nigeria, who was kidnapped on Sunday, has been released unharmed, according to the Archdiocese of Owerri. The diocese, which is in southeastern Nigeria, announced in a social…Continue Reading

More GOP senators vow to challenge Biden’s win

WASHINGTON – A last-ditch effort by President Donald Trump and his allies to overturn the election thrust Washington into chaos Saturday as a growing coalition of Republican senators announced plans to rebel against Senate leaders by seeking to block formal…Continue Reading

Underground Catholic bishop dies in China

CNA Staff, Dec 31, 2020 / 03:25 pm MT (CNA).- According to the Catholic outlet AsiaNews, headquartered in Rome, Bishop Andrea Han Jingtao, 99, a leader in the underground Catholic Church in China, died Dec. 30. Han Jingtao was the…Continue Reading

‘All-star,’ ‘brilliant jurist’: Pro-life leaders thrilled Trump nominated Barrett to Supreme Court

September 26, 2020 (LifeSiteNews) – Supreme Court nominee Judge Amy Coney Barrett is “an absolute all-star” and “a judicial role model for the next generation,” pro-life leaders said today.  If confirmed, Barrett will replace pro-abortion Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who died just…Continue Reading

Farewell, Uncle Di: Father Paul Mankowski, RIP

My editorial career has brought me into close contact with quite a few impressive thinkers. I have worked with famous authors, with noted theologians and philosophers, with canny political strategists, with at least a half-dozen Nobel Prize winners. Among them…Continue Reading

VIDEO: BLM mob threatens, chases Rand Paul down streets of DC

WASHINGTON, D.C., August 28, 2020 (LifeSiteNews) – Republican Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky found himself the target of left-wing violence yet again Thursday night as protesters swarmed him as he was leaving the White House, chasing him and his wife…Continue Reading

Planned Parenthood acknowledges Margaret Sanger’s ‘racist legacy’, continues abortions

CNA Staff, Jul 21, 2020 / 11:05 am MT (CNA).- The New York affiliate of the nation’s largest abortion provider said Tuesday it will remove the name of its founder, Margaret Sanger, from its Manhattan building because of her support…Continue Reading

Statue of Virgin Mary beheaded at Tennessee parish

CNA Staff, Jul 15, 2020 / 10:40 am MT (CNA).- A statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary was attacked this weekend at a parish in Chattanooga, Tennessee, the third reported incident against a statue of Mary occuring in the same…Continue Reading

21 doctors tell bishops Communion on tongue ‘safer’ than in hand

June 26, 2020 (LifeSiteNews) – Twenty-one Austrian doctors have authored a letter appealing their country’s Bishops’ Conference to lift the de facto ban on receiving Holy Communion on the tongue, which has been enforced since Communion in the hand was…Continue Reading

Untitled 5 Untitled 2

Attention Readers:

  Welcome to our website. Readers who are familiar with The Wanderer know we have been providing Catholic news and orthodox commentary for 150 years in our weekly print edition.


  Our daily version offers only some of what we publish weekly in print. To take advantage of everything The Wanderer publishes, we encourage you to su
bscribe to our flagship weekly print edition, which is mailed every Friday or, if you want to view it in its entirety online, you can subscribe to the E-edition, which is a replica of the print edition.
 
  Our daily edition includes: a selection of material from recent issues of our print edition, news stories updated daily from renowned news sources, access to archives from The Wanderer from the past 10 years, available at a minimum charge (this will be expanded as time goes on). Also: regularly updated features where we go back in time and highlight various columns and news items covered in The Wanderer over the past 150 years. And: a comments section in which your remarks are encouraged, both good and bad, including suggestions.
 
  We encourage you to become a daily visitor to our site. If you appreciate our site, tell your friends. As Catholics we must band together to rediscover our faith and share it with the world if we are to effectively counter a society whose moral culture seems to have no boundaries and a government whose rapidly extending reach threatens to extinguish the rights of people of faith to practice their religion (witness the HHS mandate). Now more than ever, vehicles like The Wanderer are needed for clarification and guidance on the issues of the day.

Catholic, conservative, orthodox, and loyal to the Magisterium have been this journal’s hallmarks for five generations. God willing, our message will continue well into this century and beyond.

Joseph Matt
President, The Wanderer Printing Co.

Untitled 1

Catechism

Today . . .

Americans to receive COVID shots inside abortion centers as part of multi-million dollar Planned Parenthood campaign

April 8, 2021 (LifeSiteNews) – America’s largest abortion company is launching a major campaign to distribute COVID-19 vaccines and convince people to get them. Today, Planned Parenthood announced a $2 million English and Spanish ad blitz to promote COVID-19 vaccines to at least 1.5 million people, on top of campaigns to distribute shots through clinics and

Statement on the Reception of Holy Communion by Those Who Persist in Public Grave Sin

Many Catholics and also non-Catholics who, while they do not embrace the Catholic faith, respect the Catholic Church for her teaching regarding faith and morals, have asked me how it is possible for Catholics to receive Holy Communion, while at the same time they publicly and obstinately promote programs, policies and legislation in direct violation of the moral law. In particular, they ask how Catholic politicians and civil officials who publicly and obstinately defend and…Continue Reading

Catholic teaching on Communion applies to politicians who support abortion, too, bishop says

Phoenix, Ariz., Apr 6, 2021 / 20:01 pm America/Denver (CNA). Catholic teaching sees the Eucharist as Christ’s transformative sacrifice on the cross and this Holy Communion must only be received worthily. This teaching is not partisan, but it certainly applies to political leaders who back abortion and euthanasia, Bishop Thomas Olmsted of Phoenix has said in an apostolic exhortation on the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist. “Holy Communion is reserved for those, who with God’s grace…Continue Reading

">Conversations with Cardinal Burke March 2021

Only one third of US Catholics plans to attend Mass for Easter: poll

March 31, 2021 (LifeSiteNews) — A recent poll revealed the severe effect COVID-19 restrictions have had upon churchgoers in the U.S. Catholics are shown to be most cautious, with only 5% of Catholic churches open without any restrictions, as they were before the arrival of the virus. Meanwhile, Evangelical protestants are the most eager to return to normal, and look set to fill their churches the most at Easter time.

Should Government Track The Miles You Drive?

By TERENCE P. JEFFREY One American gets up in the morning, gets in his car and drives down a congested highway to work.Another wakes at noon and rides a subway to a saloon.Which of these two — if America’s future takes a wrong turn — would pay what might be called the “Buttigieg tax”?CNBC’s Kayla…Continue Reading

The Plight Of The Author

By DONALD DeMARCO Our parish bazaar was in its second day. Most of the more attractive items were gone on the opening day when crowds of treasure seekers stormed the church basement. Our pastor urged us to sweep clean any trinkets that remained. And so, after Mass, my wife and I made the short journey…Continue Reading

Joe Biden’s Bid To Remake America

By PATRICK J. BUCHANAN If Joe Biden’s American Jobs Program, outlined in Pittsburgh, is enacted, then the federal government will take a great leap forward toward irreversible control of the destiny of the Republic.To finance this leap, to subsidize this giant stride toward socialism, U.S. corporations are to be forced to turn over to the…Continue Reading

Like Clockwork… Mass Shooting, Then Demands For Gun Control

By BARBARA SIMPSON (Editor’s Note: This article first appeared on WorldNetDaily, www.wnd.com, on March 26. All rights reserved. Barbara Simpson has a 20-year radio, TV, and newspaper career in the Bay Area and Los Angeles.) + + Here we go again — or rather, “here we still are.” The news is filled with horrific reports…Continue Reading

Senators Demand Investigation . . . Into Planned Parenthood Getting PPP loans

WASHINGTON, D.C. (CNA) — A letter signed by 25 Republican senators is demanding an investigation into Planned Parenthood affiliates illegally accessing emergency small business loans.“We write to request an investigation concerning how affiliates of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (‘Planned Parenthood’), a national organization with central control over its affiliates which has nearly $2…Continue Reading

Advertisement

Our Catholic Faith (Section B of print edition)

Remember The Suffering Of The Messiah

By FR. ROBERT ALTIER Third Sunday Of Easter (YR B) Readings: Acts 3:13-15, 17-191 John 1-5aLuke 24:35-48 In the fourth week of Lent we had a break and looked forward to the joy that was coming in Easter. That day reminded us to be joyful and spurred us on to continue with our Lenten penances, knowing we had made it…Continue Reading

Catholic Replies

Q. Can you explain what righteous anger is? I thought anger was one of the seven deadly sins, so how can it ever be righteous? — T.S., via e-mail.A. The glossary at the back of the Catechism of the Catholic Church defines anger as “an emotion which is not in itself wrong, but which, when it is not controlled by…Continue Reading

A Leaven In The World . . . Freedom Of Faith Vs. Social Control

By FR. KEVIN M. CUSICK The world doesn’t know how to use power. Like addicts, those unrestrained by any humility or faith believe that, if a little feels good, then more must be better.We may be in masks to buy groceries for the rest of our lives. We may not be able to do anything about that. It’s the world.…Continue Reading

Cardinal Sarah Asks Pope Francis . . . To Reinstate Individual Masses At St. Peter’s Basilica

By HANNAH BROCKHAUS VATICAN CITY (CNA) — Robert Cardinal Sarah has asked Pope Francis to reinstate the celebration of private Masses at the side altars in St. Peter’s Basilica, after individual Masses were suspended earlier in March in favor of concelebration.“I humbly beg the Holy Father to order the withdrawal of the recent norms issued by the secretariat of state,”…Continue Reading

Love God And Love Neighbor

By FR. ROBERT ALTIER Second Sunday Of Easter (Divine Mercy) (YR B) Readings: Acts 4:32-351 John 5:1-6John 20:19-31 In the first reading today, we are told that the first Christians were of one heart and mind. Such unity can only exist when there is no selfishness. What the first believers show us is that their minds were united in the…Continue Reading

Catholic Heroes . . . St. Jeanne Jugan

By DEB PIROCH “The Seventh Commandment implies the obligation of assisting the poor and needy as far as we are able. . . . Our Lord declares the omission of alms deeds will be punished by eternal damnation (Matt. 25:46). . . . For many persons, without their own fault, are pitiably destitute, e.g. orphans, widows, the sick and disabled,…Continue Reading

Catholic Heroes… Pope St. Pius X

By DEB PIROCH “He saith to him again: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith to him: Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him: Feed my lambs. He said to him the third time: Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved, because he had said to him the third time: Lovest…Continue Reading

Advertisement(2)