Tuesday 18th June 2019

Home » Frontpage »Our Catholic Faith » Currently Reading:

Interview With Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke . . . The Faithful Are Suffering…But Schism Can Never Be Right

December 5, 2018 Frontpage, Our Catholic Faith No Comments
Cburke3

By PEGGY MOEN

(Editor’s Note: This interview took place in Rome on October 22, 2018, the Feast of St. John Paul II, during the final week of the October 3-28 Synod on Young People, the Faith, and Vocational Discernment and before its conclusion. See The Wanderer, November 1, 2018, p. 1 for an article based on this interview.)

+ + +

Q. Your Eminence, the first thing I wanted to ask is, many Catholics, following this Summer of Shame, think they are living through the worst period of Church history. Do you agree?
Cardinal Burke: It’s certainly among the worst, if not the worst. The Church has had other periods of great scandal. But this has dimensions about it that seem to be equal to or greater than other scandals that the Church has endured.
The primary scandal with the situation of Theodore McCarrick is, it’s clear, that he was able to lead this life of abuse of young people as a priest, and as a bishop, because he was protected and promoted. This is the source of the greatest scandal. And so, I think that we’ve reached a moment of terrible crisis that has to be addressed.
Q. If you had to pick, which other troubled period of Church history would you compare this one to?
Burke: One would think of the Renaissance, which involved both financial and sexual scandals that corrupted the clergy.
We know for instance, with regard to this plague of the homosexual agenda, that St. Peter Damian [born 1007, died 1073] wrote a whole treatise on this because of the scandal in the Church of his time. So I think, above all, there’s the need for a consciousness of this difficulty of homosexual activity in seminaries, in the clergy, and even in the hierarchy.
And that has to be addressed in a very thorough and effective way.
Q. As we speak, the Synod fathers have yet to vote on the final Synod document, which fortunately will be a paragraph by paragraph vote. Do you have any predictions or concerns about the document? Or concerns about the authoring of it?
Burke: There is a concern. Apparently — I didn’t read this directly — Archbishop Bruno Forte is one of the Pope’s key advisers, and has said that a draft of the document has already been written. That’s very concerning.
The other thing that’s very concerning is that it has been said that the draft of the Synod’s final document will only be available in Italian. In the past, the Synod documents have been available in several languages. And the fact of the matter is that there would be some Synod fathers who don’t read Italian. So that’s very concerning.
I’ve heard from some who are participating in this Synod that the overwhelming interest in the Synod has been on the question of a new evangelization and also the situation of persecuted Christians. Whereas there is an element that keeps trying to push this homosexual agenda, the same element that put the reference to the LGBT in the preparatory documents.
The young people that I meet tell me that what they need is for the Church to tell them honestly and clearly what she teaches and to hold them to live accordingly. Whereas there’s a certain element in the leadership of the Synod which keeps stating that young people don’t accept anymore the Church’s teaching, and the Church has to use some totally new language and approach. That’s very concerning.
Q. It’s true many don’t accept it, but so many haven’t been taught it.
Burke: That’s right. There’s a great ignorance of the Church’s teaching on faith and morals.
Q. On The World Over [EWTN] last week, Robert Royal said he didn’t think the LGBT agenda was getting the traction that its backers hoped they would get.
Burke: I hope not. I certainly hope not. And you have to understand that I don’t have any direct experience of the Synod. It’s just what people say to me or what I read.
Q. In the course of the Synod, Robert Cardinal Sarah has said that youth should be challenged with the Church’s teaching on sexuality.
Burke: Exactly. What the young people want most — I travel a great deal and I encounter many young people — is to be challenged because yes, they live in a world where there’s a tremendous amount of immorality having to do with sexual matters and also with drugs, but they clearly realize that this can’t bring them happiness. So they are looking for a life which will only bring them happiness and that of course is what Christ alone offers. And so, they want to hear what Christ is teaching in His Church.
The point you made is very true. One of the major difficulties is that we have some generations of very poorly catechized Catholics — the parents of the young people probably don’t know their faith very well and the children haven’t been catechized.
But when you do catechize them, I find them most receptive.
Q. It has definitely gotten to be generational.
Burke: Yes.
Q. And we tend to think we want nothing but comfort and ease, but I think we’re hard-wired to want something more than that.
Burke: We’re made to carry the cross and to do it joyfully and with great love.
Q. One thing that came out in the Synod early on was the decision to make the Synod document part of the ordinary Magisterium. Do you see a problem with that?
Burke: Yes. The whole apostolic constitution on the Synod [Episcopalis Communio, made public on September 18] is problematic. It needs to be completely reviewed and critiqued. But it’s not possible that a Synod creates ordinary Magisterium, and neither does the Pope do it on his own, apart from what the Church has always taught and practiced.
This idea that either the Pope on his own or the Synod together with the Pope can create some new Magisterium, is simply false.
The Synod is a consultative body, to help the Pope to see how best to present the Church’s teaching in time. It’s not able to create ordinary Magisterium.
Q. [The apostolic constitution that governed this Synod] would, I suppose, unless it’s changed, apply to future Synods.
Burke: Yes, of course.
In fact, there was a problem in the last Synod, because this approach was followed in the last Synod. That caused trouble.
Q. I’ve heard comments that while the Synod’s topic was youth, the title also included vocations, and that aspect has disappeared in the discussions.
Burke: I don’t hear anything about it. And I don’t know if they’re going to take that up this week, but I haven’t heard anything about it.
One of the things with regard to vocations that’s very alarming is that an auxiliary bishop of Brussels came out with a declaration calling for a change in the Church’s discipline on clerical celibacy. And there was this talk in the preparatory period that the young people don’t accept celibacy, but that isn’t true, either. Many of them probably don’t understand it. But when they have it explained to them, beginning with our Lord’s own example, they embrace it readily.
And I certainly saw that in young men who were discerning a vocation to the priesthood, in the years I was a bishop and an archbishop.
And even now I know many young men who are discerning a vocation.
Q. The whole idea of vocations has been somewhat dumbed down, so that everything has to be a vocation on an equal plane. And I think myself that you’re not supposed to say one thing is higher or better than another.
C.S. Lewis talked about that at some point, that people just don’t really understand that when you say one thing is better than another, that doesn’t mean that the lesser thing is evil.
Burke: No, and it doesn’t mean that the person who is following his vocation faithfully is somehow a lesser person. Some people are called to the priesthood, some are called to the consecrated life, some are called to married life. For each person, it’s the same dignity and a call to lead a holy life in accord with that vocation.
The matter of fact is the whole life of the Church depends upon the priestly vocation. How can we not say that in a certain way it’s a higher calling? God calls whom He wishes and, of course, the person has to respond to that grace. People can be called to a higher calling and betray it terribly, as we’ve seen.
Q. One thing that bothers people that I talk to is the question of what can the laity do and not do in response to the crisis, particularly when something that is problematic is apparently coming from the Pope?
Burke: Yes, I think that the laity have to communicate with their priests and bishops their profound concerns and they have to, in their own conversations and their own activities, defend the truths of the faith as they are set forth in the Catechism of the Catholic Church and in the authentic teaching of the Church. Even if it seems like the Pope is teaching something contrary, they have to remain faithful to what is Christ’s will.
The Pope is the first among us who is called to be obedient to Christ, and we as priests, and as lay people, must show that obedience, even if it seems in some way that the Holy Father is not being obedient.
Q. Is there a danger of schism in the Church?
Burke: There is a danger. A real danger.  I understand how much the faithful are suffering. But schism can never be right.
Q. Today is St. John Paul II’s feast day.
Burke: Yes, it is.
Q. Do you still have hope for a response from the Pope on the Dubia [questions], or what is your outlook on that?
Burke: I think, at this point, it’s highly unlikely that he will respond. And so, at this point, the question is, the faithful deserve a response to these important questions. In some way, the truth of the matter has to be stated. That’s the question for the moment, but the Dubia remain and the fact that the Pope doesn’t respond to them doesn’t change the fact that they are real Dubia and they have great importance for the salvation of souls.
Q. On that, one thing I noticed in [former apostolic nuncio to the United States] Archbishop Carlo Viganò’s statements, three of them now, is that he said very ardently that he feared for his own soul if he didn’t say something [about how Pope Francis and several high-level prelates were complicit in covering up for former U.S. cardinal Theodore McCarrick]. And so, on that, what specific answerability do Church leaders have in these matters?
Burke: Here’s a very clear question. The evils he has denounced are of the most serious nature, and, if they are true — he says he has proofs that they are true — he was obliged in conscience to make them known. Because the law of God in these matters is higher than, for instance, the obligation of the pontifical secret.
And so, people have attacked him, but his act is an act done in conscience, according to his conscience, and we ought to receive it accordingly and take very seriously all that he has said. And to do otherwise is to be negligent with regard to the good of the Church. Because he has stated, and I don’t think there’s any reason to doubt it, that he did this for the good of the Church.
Archbishop Viganò is a lifelong servant of the Holy See. I have known him during my years of service in the Roman Curia. I have also known him during his years as the apostolic nuncio in the United States. I with many others have always viewed him as a person of the highest integrity and great competence. I think you’ve seen that. That any number of United States bishops have spoken up to express their support of him.
Q. You see him as a man of the highest integrity?
Burke: I do, I do. In any case, to engage in ad hominem responses is completely inappropriate. He’s made very specific and clear accusations. They need to be addressed.
Q. I thought some of the comments about him were a little silly — like he was angry that he didn’t get to be a cardinal — come on!
Burke: The man is 77 years old. He’s preparing to meet our Lord.
Q. What he says I think is true. It’s hard for the rest of us not to imagine the terrible soul suffering he must have gone through.
Burke: I agree.
Q. On another topic, I read your book Hope for the World [first published in 2015] and you spoke of the Obama administration’s attacks on life and family. Do you see more hope with this administration?
Burke: I do. The fact that the president spoke live to the March for Life, the appointments of judges, appointing men and women who seem to have a solid commitment to the moral law, are causes of hope. In various other ways, I see him as strengthening family life, also by addressing the situation of the economy, the unemployment.
There’s no question, character-wise, he’s an original person. From that point of view, he might not always act as I think the president of the United States should act, but I think we have to recognize the good he’s doing and encourage it.
I think it’s very important — I know that he’s a Christian by background. I don’t know how strong his Christian faith is, but I have the impression that he’s very sensitive to the concerns of Christians, and I think we need to let him know, the citizens need to let him know, what our concerns are.
I think one of the great prayers that we should be making in our country is to pray for good politicians. There has developed over time the idea that politics is all corrupt and that you can’t trust any politician. And I encourage good young Catholics who have an interest in politics to go into politics because this is what we need.
Q. Finally, what are the ongoing plans for the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe?
Burke: We’re just in the midst of concluding a major campaign with two goals in mind. Number one, to bring the endowment trust of the Shrine to ten million dollars. God willing, soon it should be announced that we have succeeded. That’s important because the annual earnings of the endowment trust will help support the ongoing operation and maintenance of the shrine.
But the second project is also very important. We want to build a catechetical center and retreat house.
Fr. John A. Hardon, SJ, was a great catechist who died in the year 2000. He founded the Marian Catechist Apostolate to provide spiritual and doctrinal formation for catechists. Its center is at the Shrine. But it needs a better facility.
And then the other thing is we have so many people who want to come and spend a few days at the Shrine, individuals, but also groups — bishops bring their seminarians, there are married couples that come, different organizations, catechetical groups, and so forth — who want to come and spend an overnight or some days at the Shrine in order to benefit as fully as possible from this holy place.
We want to build as much of that as we can. So, the more money that we can raise, the more we’ll be able to do.
Those are the great plans. But, of course, the fundamental direction is always to keep the Shrine a true place of pilgrimage, that is, a true place of prayer. The thing that comforts me the most and encourages me the most is that people repeatedly tell me as soon as they come on the grounds of the Shrine, they sense that they are in a holy place and that they receive great peace.
But the Shrine staff can never become complacent, because the Devil never rests, and we have to be very vigilant in fostering the holiness of the Shrine.
Q. Those are all the questions I had. We thank you, Your Eminence, for your time.

Share Button

2019 The Wanderer Printing Co.

Twitter Feed

Load More...

Vatican’s doctrinal office expected to release document on gender theory

Vatican City, Jun 14, 2019 / 12:00 pm (CNA).- The Vatican’s doctrinal office is preparing a document which will address Church teaching and the anthropology of the human person in the context of so-called gender theory, according to a Vatican…Continue Reading

Illinois bishops oppose abortion law, disagree on Communion for pro-choice lawmakers

Baltimore, Md., Jun 14, 2019 / 04:00 am (CNA).- While two Illinois bishops are unified in their strong opposition to the state’s new abortion law, they differ on the question of prohibiting to receive Holy Communion the Catholic state legislators…Continue Reading

‘The Decalogue’ for Nuncios (Pope Francis’ Full Address to Meeting of Papal Representatives)

The following is a ZENIT working full English translation of the discourse Pope Francis prepared and delivered today, June 13, 2019, to all the Papal Representatives, meeting in the Vatican from June 12 – 15,  2019: **** Dear Brethren, I’m…Continue Reading

Vatican rejects idea that people can ‘choose one’s gender’

The Vatican on Monday released an official document that rejects the idea that a transgender person has the right to “choose one’s gender,” according to reports. The Washington Post reported that the Catholic Church said in the document that the right to…Continue Reading

Cardinal Pell awaits verdict after prosecutor stumbles in appeal hearing

June 7, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) – The two-day hearing in Cardinal George Pell’s appeal before the Victorian Court of Appeal against his conviction for alleged child sex abuse in Melbourne, Australia, in the 1990s ended Thursday with a positive impression for the defense.…Continue Reading

Archdiocese of Saint Paul-Minneapolis announces synod

St. Paul, Minn., Jun 7, 2019 / 06:04 pm (CNA).- Minnesota’s largest diocese will hold a synod— a meeting designed to help the bishop shepherd his local flock— during Pentecost Weekend 2021, Archbishop Bernard Hebda announced yesterday. It will be the…Continue Reading

Jerry Falwell, Jr., Rev. Kevin Cusick and the Satanic War Against Sex

Some entity or other doesn’t want me writing. First, my carpal tunnel has flared up something fierce. It hurts me to pet the beagles, much less to peel them off the dirty plates they’re licking inside the dishwasher. My favorite…Continue Reading

Biden Buckles, Flips on Hyde Amendment Under Pressure From Democrats

Former Vice President Joe Biden reversed his position on the Hyde Amendment Thursday after facing intense backlash from within his own party. Biden, while speaking in Atlanta, first reaffirmed his support for Roe v. Wade

Biden names pro-LGBT ‘Equality Act’ as top priority if elected

COLUMBUS, Ohio, June 3, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) — Passing the radical pro-LGBT and pro-abortion Equality Act “will be the first thing I ask to be done” if elected president, Joe Biden said at the annual Human Rights Campaign gala Saturday. The…Continue Reading

Pontifical university bans top scholar who accused Pope Francis of heresy in open letter

ROME, May 29, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) – One of the English-speaking world’s greatest living scholars of Classical philosophy was told he has been barred from all Pontifical Universities after he signed an Open Letter along with a number of prominent clergymen and scholars…Continue Reading

Pope Francis responds to heresy accusation, China concerns

Pope425

Vatican City, May 29, 2019 / 10:05 am (CNA).- Pope Francis said he reacted “with a sense of humor” to the accusation of heresy made against him earlier this month. “It does not hurt me at all. Hypocrisy and lies…Continue Reading

Parish priest assails Catholic prep school’s decision to allow same-sex union announcements

The pastor of a Catholic parish in the Washington suburbs has publicly slammed the decision this month by Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School to allow announcements of same-sex unions in its magazine for graduates, calling it a scandal that was a…Continue Reading

Untitled 5 Untitled 2

Attention Readers:

  Welcome to our website. Readers who are familiar with The Wanderer know we have been providing Catholic news and orthodox commentary for 150 years in our weekly print edition.


  Our daily version offers only some of what we publish weekly in print. To take advantage of everything The Wanderer publishes, we encourage you to su
bscribe to our flagship weekly print edition, which is mailed every Friday or, if you want to view it in its entirety online, you can subscribe to the E-edition, which is a replica of the print edition.
 
  Our daily edition includes: a selection of material from recent issues of our print edition, news stories updated daily from renowned news sources, access to archives from The Wanderer from the past 10 years, available at a minimum charge (this will be expanded as time goes on). Also: regularly updated features where we go back in time and highlight various columns and news items covered in The Wanderer over the past 150 years. And: a comments section in which your remarks are encouraged, both good and bad, including suggestions.
 
  We encourage you to become a daily visitor to our site. If you appreciate our site, tell your friends. As Catholics we must band together to rediscover our faith and share it with the world if we are to effectively counter a society whose moral culture seems to have no boundaries and a government whose rapidly extending reach threatens to extinguish the rights of people of faith to practice their religion (witness the HHS mandate). Now more than ever, vehicles like The Wanderer are needed for clarification and guidance on the issues of the day.

Catholic, conservative, orthodox, and loyal to the Magisterium have been this journal’s hallmarks for five generations. God willing, our message will continue well into this century and beyond.

Joseph Matt
President, The Wanderer Printing Co.

Untitled 1

Interview With Cardinal Burke . . . Discriminating Mercy: Defending Christ And His Church With True Love

Cburke3

  By DON FIER (Editor’s Note: His Eminence Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke, Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and Founder of the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Crosse, Wis., graciously took time out of his busy schedule to grant The Wanderer a wide-ranging interview during a recent visit to the Shrine. Included among the topics…Continue Reading

Developing Lives Of Peace After The Heart Of Mary

By RAYMOND LEO CARDINAL BURKE (Editor’s Note: His Eminence Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke delivered the address below at the 32nd Annual Church Teaches Forum, “The Message of Fatima: Peace for the World,” Galt House, Louisville, Ky., July 22, 2017. The address is reprinted here with the kind permission of Cardinal Burke. All rights reserved. This is part one of the…Continue Reading

Catechism

Today . . .

Archbishop Viganò clarifies points arising from new interview

ROME, June 14, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) — In the wake of two recent pieces in the Washington Post relating to Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò, an article and an extended interview (the first the archbishop has granted since his initial allegations concerning Pope Francis), renewed insinuations and smears have been directed at the former diplomat of the Holy See. In his June 10 interview, the archbishop claims that the actions so far taken against McCarrick are chiefly…Continue Reading

Pope backs carbon pricing to stem global warming and appeals to deniers

Carbon pricing, via taxes or emissions trading schemes, is used by many governments to make energy consumers pay for the costs of using the fossil fuels that contribute to global warming * Pope Francis tells top energy executives to act now * Pontiff urges world to heed scientific findings

U.S Bishops Approve the Revised Passage on the Death Penalty for the U.S. Catholic Catechism for Adults

BALTIMORE— The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) approved the revised passage on the death penalty for the U.S. Catholic Catechism for Adults. The full body of bishops approved the revised passage by a vote of 194 to 8 with 3 abstentions at their Spring General Assembly taking place in Baltimore, June 11-14. On August 2, 2018, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith released the Holy Father’s revision to the teaching on the…Continue Reading

Democrats Fail to Get Enough Votes to Force Americans to Fund Abortions

House Democrats failed to garner enough support Monday for a measure to force American taxpayers to pay for abortions. The Washington Examiner reports the amendment came from a group of progressive Democrats who want to remove the Hyde Amendment from a Congressional spending bill. The Hyde Amendment prohibits taxpayer funding of abortions in Medicaid. The Democrats pushing the measure were U.S. Reps. Ayanna Pressley, of Massachusetts, Barbara Lee, of California, Pramila Jayapal, of Washington, Diana DeGette,…Continue Reading

Cdl Burke, Bp Schneider issue ‘declaration of truths’ to correct rampant ‘doctrinal confusion’ in Church

ROME, June 10, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) — Cardinal Raymond Burke and Bishop Athanasius Schneider, together with several other bishops, have issued a public declaration of truths of the faith to remedy the “almost universal doctrinal confusion and disorientation” endangering the spiritual health and eternal salvation of souls in the Church today

Advertisement(2)

Floral Artist… Heads Back To U.S. Supreme Court To Protect Her Freedom

OLYMPIA — Alliance Defending Freedom attorneys representing floral artist Barronelle Stutzman of Arlene’s Flowers in Richland will ask the U.S. Supreme Court to take her case after the Washington Supreme Court ruled against her on June 6. The U.S. Supreme Court vacated the state High Court’s previous ruling against Stutzman and ordered it to reconsider…Continue Reading

Canada And The Erosion Of Conscience

By DONALD DeMARCO Pro-abortionists have consistently argued that a woman should have the freedom to follow her conscience. Granted that this notion of conscience is incomplete since it may not be properly formed, nonetheless it gave pro-life people the assurance that this right to one’s conscience would protect doctors who are opposed to abortion from…Continue Reading

Are Abortion & Gay Rights American Values?

By PATRICK J. BUCHANAN “My religion defines who I am. And I’ve been a practicing Catholic my whole life,” said Vice President Joe Biden in 2012. “I accept my church’s position on abortion as . . . doctrine. Life begins at conception. . . . I just refuse to impose that on others.” For four…Continue Reading

New Vatican Document . . . Says Gender Theory Is “Cultural And Ideological Revolution”

VATICAN CITY (CNA) — A Vatican department has issued a sweeping denunciation of so-called gender theory, and affirmed the principles of human dignity, difference, and complementarity. “In all such [gender] theories, from the most moderate to the most radical, there is agreement that one’s gender ends up being viewed as more important than being of…Continue Reading

Archbishop DiNardo… Accused Of Mishandling Clerical Sexual Misconduct Case

HOUSTON (CNA) — The president of the U.S. bishops’ conference has been accused of mishandling an allegation of sexual coercion made against his former vicar general. A Texas woman says that Daniel Cardinal DiNardo permitted the priest, who she says sexually coerced her, to transfer to another diocese and continue in ministry, after she was…Continue Reading

Advertisement

Our Catholic Faith (Section B of print edition)

Latest From Fr. Cusick . . . Modesty: A Woman’s Voice

By FR. KEVIN M. CUSICK For readers following “the tweet hated round the world” story, more on the aftermath in this week’s column. Being removed a degree from Twitter after deactivating my personal account, and looking back at comments on the social media platform, is like being dead. People talk about me in the third person: “We miss him,” “Hope…Continue Reading

Catholic Replies

Editor’s Note: Commenting on the Vatican accord last year to give the Communist regime in Red China a say in the naming of new Catholic bishops, Fr. George Rutler of the Church of St. Michael in New York City offered these trenchant comments in a recent bulletin: “While the Holy See invokes two thousand years of diplomatic experience, China beats…Continue Reading

The Barbarians Have Won

By DEACON JAMES H. TONER Part 1 (Editor’s Note: Deacon Toner has contributed numerous columns to The Catholic Thing, Crisis Magazine, and The Wanderer. He serves in the Diocese of Charlotte, N.C. This is a two-part article.) + + + Précis: Known as barbarians or heathens, the powerful enemies of the Church are both internal and external. There are many…Continue Reading

Jesus Is The Wisdom Of God

BY FR. ROBERT ALTIER Solemnity Of The Most Holy Trinity (YR C) Readings: Prov. 8:22-34 Romans 5:1-5 John 16:12-15   In the first reading today we see the personification of Wisdom. We are told Wisdom was present with God before the Most High began His work of creation. The only way someone could be present with God before “the beginning…Continue Reading

The Joy And Beauty Of Sacrificial Love

By JAMES MONTI There is something profoundly intimate about chapters 13 to 17 of the Gospel of St. John — the apostle’s meticulous account of Our Lord’s Farewell Discourse at the Last Supper. For those who might wonder where the Sacred Heart of Jesus is mentioned in the Gospels, they can find it in these pages. For it is here,…Continue Reading

Catholic Heroes . . . St. Marcellin Joseph Benedict Champagnat

By CAROLE BRESLIN The end of the 18th century in France was a time of persecution for the Catholic Church with many priests and religious driven from convents and rectories, and others put to death. As more and more priests were martyred, the Church searched for good young men to replace them. In the history of the Church, there have…Continue Reading

Catholic Heroes . . . St. Ferdinand III, King Of Castile

By CAROLE BRESLIN The list of Third Order Franciscans contains some surprising persons. It includes Popes Leo XIII, Pius X, John XXIII, among others. It also includes St. Thomas More, St. Francis de Sales, and a number of royalty such as St. Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, St. Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal, and St. Louis IX, King of France. In addition,…Continue Reading